Neuromuscular effects of rapacuronium in pediatric patients during nitrous oxide-halothane anesthesia: comparison with mivacurium.
PURPOSE: To describe neuromuscular effects of rapacuronium in pediatric patients during N2O-halothane anesthesia and compare them with mivacurium in children. METHODS: 103 pediatric patients, seven days -12 yr, received rapacuronium or mivacurium during N2O-halothane anesthesia. Onset and recovery of block were measured using EMG (Datex). Block was compared between groups based on drug treatment and age. Children < two years received 1 or 2 mg x kg(-1) rapacuronium: 2-12 yr received either 2 mg x kg(-1) or 3 mg x kg(-1) rapacuronium, or 0.2 mg x kg(-1) mivacurium. RESULTS: There were no differences in onset (1.7+/-1.8 min) or maximum block (T1 2.4+/-8%) among neonates, infants, and toddlers after either dose of rapacuronium. There was no difference between 1 and 2 mg x kg(-1) of rapacuronium block at 60 sec. Train-of-four ratio (T4/T1) >0.7 occurred later after 2 mg x kg(-1) than 1 mg x kg(-1) in these patients (P<0.05). There was no difference in T25 among neonates, infants and toddlers for 1 mg x kg(-1) or 2 mg x kg(-1) doses. Rapacuronium, 3 mg x kg(-1), produced maximum block 1.5 min earlier than did mivacurium, 0.2 mg x kg(-1) (P<0.001). There was no difference in block at 60 sec, maximum block or time to maximum block between 2 and 3 mg x kg(-1) rapacuronium for children > two years of age. Maximum block occurred 1.0+/-0.5 min after 2 or 3 mg x kg(-1) when T1 was 0.2+/-1.1% of baseline. T25 and T4/T1 >0.7 occurred 10 to 11 min later after this dose of rapacuronium than after mivacurium. CONCLUSION: Rapacuronium produces block earlier than mivacurium. Recovery from rapacuronium block is dose related and slower than that following mivacurium during halothane anesthesia.
Brandom, BW; Margolis, JO; Bikhazi, GB; Ross, AK; Ginsberg, B; Dear, G; Kenaan, CA; Eck, JB; Woelfel, SK; Lloyd, ME
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