Pharmacokinetic model-driven infusion of fentanyl in children.
BACKGROUND: This study determined the accuracy of previously defined adult fentanyl pharmacokinetics in children having surgery; from this population, the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl were characterized in children when administered via a computerized assisted continuous-infusion device. METHODS: Twenty children between the ages of 2.7 and 11 y scheduled to undergo elective noncardiac surgery were studied. After induction, anesthesia was maintained with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen supplemented with fentanyl (n = 10) or fentanyl plus isoflurane (n = 10). Fentanyl was administered via computerized assisted continuous-infusion to target concentrations determined by clinical requirements. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured and used to evaluate the performance of the fentanyl pharmacokinetics and then to determine a new set of pharmacokinetic parameters and the variance in the context-sensitive half-times simulated for these patients. RESULTS: The original adult fentanyl pharmacokinetics resulted in a positive bias (10.4%), indicating that measured concentrations were mostly greater than predicted. A two-compartment model with age and weight as covariates provided the optimal pharmacokinetic parameters. These resulted in a residual performance error of -1.1% and a median absolute performance error of 17.4%. The context-sensitive times determined from this pediatric population were considerably shorter than the context-sensitive times previously published for adults. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of fentanyl administered by computerized assisted continuous-infusion differ between adults and children. The newly derived parameters are probably more suitable to determine infusion schemes of up to 4 h in children between the ages of 2 and 11 y.
Ginsberg, B; Howell, S; Glass, PS; Margolis, JO; Ross, AK; Dear, GL; Shafer, SL
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