Preliminary report on the association of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms, with postoperative peak serum creatinine concentrations in cardiac surgical patients.
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction after cardiac surgery occurs in up to 8% of patients and is associated with major increases in morbidity, mortality, and cost. Genetic polymorphisms have been implicated as a factor in the progression of chronic renal disease, but a genetic basis for the development of acute renal impairment has not been investigated. The authors therefore tested the hypothesis that apolipoprotein E alleles are associated with different postoperative changes in serum creatinine after cardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors performed a prospective observational study with use of data from 564 coronary bypass surgical patients who were enrolled in an ongoing investigation of apolipoprotein E genotypes and organ dysfunction at a university hospital between 1989-1999. Renal function was assessed among apolipoprotein E genotype groups by comparisons of preoperative (CrPre), peak in-hospital postoperative (CrMax) and perioperative change (DCr) in serum creatinine values. RESULTS: The epsilon4 allele grouping (E2 = 2/2,2/3,2/4; E3 = 3/3; E4 = 3/4,4/4) was associated with a smaller increase in postoperative serum creatinine (perioperative change: E4, +0.17; E3, +0.26; E4, +0.27 mg/dl) and a lower peak postoperative creatinine than the epsilon2 and epsilon3 in univariate and multivariate analysis (peak in-hospital postoperative serum creatinine multivariate P = 0.015 vs. epsilon3, P = 0.038 vs. epsilon2). There was no difference in baseline creatinine among allele groups. CONCLUSIONS: Inheritance of the apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele is associated with reduced postoperative increase in serum creatinine after cardiac surgery, compared with the epsilon3 or epsilon2 allele. This is the first report of a possible genetic basis for acute renal impairment. These data may contribute to renal risk stratification for cardiac surgery and raise questions regarding apolipoprotein E and the pathophysiology of acute renal injury.
Chew, ST; Newman, MF; White, WD; Conlon, PJ; Saunders, AM; Strittmatter, WJ; Landolfo, K; Grocott, HP; Stafford-Smith, M
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