Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (apoE4) allele has been associated with cognitive decline after cardiac surgery. We compared autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), and arterial-venous oxygen content difference [C(A-V)O(2)], during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in patients with and without the apoE4 allele to help define the mechanism of association with cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred fifty-four patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB, nonpulsatile flow, and alpha-stat management. CBF was measured by using (133)Xe washout methods. C(A-V)O(2), CMRO(2), and oxygen delivery were calculated. Pressure-flow autoregulation was tested by using 2 CBF measurements at stable hypothermia: the first at stable mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the second 15 minutes later, when MAP had increased or decreased >/=20%. Metabolism-flow autoregulation was tested by varying the temperature and measuring the coupling of CBF and CMRO(2). RESULTS: In patients with (n=41) or without (n=113) the apoE4 allele, there were no differences in CBF, CMRO(2), C(A-V)O(2), pressure-flow and metabolism-flow autoregulation corrected for age, gender, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, hemoglobin, CPB time, and temperature. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that apoE genotype does not affect global CBF and oxygen delivery/extraction during CPB, which suggests that other mechanisms are responsible for the apoE isoform-related neurocognitive dysfunction seen in patients undergoing CPB.
Ti, LK; Mathew, JP; Mackensen, GB; Grocott, HP; White, WD; Reves, JG; Newman, MF
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