Immediate versus delayed coronary grafting after streptokinase treatment. Postoperative blood loss and clinical results.
Of all patients with acute evolving myocardial infarction treated surgically at Duke University Medical Center between 1984 and 1986, 27 patients given high doses (greater than 1.5 million units) of streptokinase preoperatively were studied. Eleven patients who received streptokinase had coronary bypass grafting 12 hours after thrombolytic therapy (early hours), eight patients between 12 and 72 hours (delayed), and eight patients beyond 72 hours (late hours). Seventeen patients who underwent coronary bypass grafting within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms, without preoperative streptokinase, were included as control patients. Only the patients having early operation had significantly greater postoperative blood loss; postoperative use of red blood cells; fresh-frozen plasma; cryoprecipitate; prolonged postoperative prothrombin time; and prolonged partial thromboplastin time. Patients having delayed or late operations did not differ significantly from patients not receiving streptokinase. Only the interval between time of streptokinase administration and operation could account for the coagulopathy and the postoperative bleeding complications in the early group. Patients in the early group had a higher in-hospital mortality (27% versus 6% for the non-streptokinase group) and major noncardiac morbidity (36% versus 12% for the non-streptokinase group). Patients in the delayed and late groups had minimal postoperative complications and no mortality. Observations were not explained by differences in total ischemic time, number of angioplasty failures, or number of patients with cardiogenic shock between the early group and the non-streptokinase group. Postoperative bleeding and massive use of blood products seemed to be contributory factors: Two of three deaths in the patients having early operations were associated with clinical suspicion of tamponade. Patients undergoing coronary bypass grafting within 12 hours of streptokinase therapy appear to be a high-risk group in a more emergent, uncontrolled clinical setting and require aggressive monitoring and correction of coagulopathy.
Lee, KF; Mandell, J; Rankin, JS; Muhlbaier, LH; Wechsler, AS
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