Quantitative echocardiographic assessment of regional wall motion and left ventricular asynchrony with color kinesis in cardiac surgery patients.
UNLABELLED: Conventional echocardiographic interpretation of regional wall motion abnormalities is subjective and experience dependent. Delayed contraction in the ejection phase (tardokinesis) and regional systolic asynchrony, sensitive markers of myocardial ischemia, cannot be accurately assessed visually. We used color kinesis (CK), a technique that evaluates spatiotemporal patterns of endocardial motion, to objectively detect regional wall motion abnormalities in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, and we compared it with conventional assessment of grayscale images by less experienced reviewers; we used expert grading as the gold standard for comparisons. Quantitative CK analysis agreed more closely with expert grading than less experienced reviewers (kappa coefficients, 0.74 versus 0.52 and 0.5). Global tardokinesis, identified in 9 of 26 patients (2 with normal fractional area change), was associated with an increased index of systolic asynchrony. Regional tardokinesis was identified in 48 of 150 segments: 27 segments had a normal magnitude of wall motion, 18 were hypokinetic, and 3 were severely hypokinetic/akinetic. Mildly hypokinetic segments showed delayed systolic motion, whereas residual motion of severely hypokinetic/akinetic segments occurred in early systole, reflecting passive effects produced by adjacent myocardial contraction. Quantitative CK may be a useful supplement to visual assessment, particularly for less experienced readers. By diagnosing tardokinesis, common among cardiac surgical patients even with normal standard ejection phase indices, quantitative CK may improve the intraoperative detection of regional ischemic changes. IMPLICATIONS: Quantitative color kinesis allows for objective and sensitive intraoperative echocardiographic assessment of abnormal spatial and temporal patterns of regional ventricular wall motion, with potentially important implications for improving myocardial ischemia detection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Podgoreanu, MV; Djaiani, GN; Davis, E; Phillips-Bute, B; Mathew, JP
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