Dose-dependent and isoform-specific modulation of Ca2+ channels by RGK GTPases.
Although inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels by RGK GTPases (RGKs) represents an important mode of regulation to control Ca(2+) influx in excitable cells, their exact mechanism of inhibition remains controversial. This has prevented an understanding of how RGK regulation can be significant in a physiological context. Here we show that RGKs-Gem, Rem, and Rem2-decreased Ca(V)1.2 Ca(2+) current amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, Rem2, but not Rem or Gem, produced dose-dependent alterations on gating kinetics, uncovering a new mode by which certain RGKs can precisely modulate Ca(2+) currents and affect Ca(2+) influx during action potentials. To explore how RGKs influence gating kinetics, we separated the roles mediated by the Ca(2+) channel accessory beta subunit's interaction with its high affinity binding site in the pore-forming alpha(1C) subunit (AID) from its other putative contact sites by utilizing an alpha(1C)*beta3 concatemer in which the AID was mutated to prevent beta subunit interaction. This mutant concatemer generated currents with all the hallmarks of beta subunit modulation, demonstrating that AID-beta-independent interactions are sufficient for beta subunit modulation. Using this construct we found that although inhibition of current amplitude was still partially sensitive to RGKs, Rem2 no longer altered gating kinetics, implicating different determinants for this specific mode of Rem2-mediated regulation. Together, these results offer new insights into the molecular mechanism of RGK-mediated Ca(2+) channel current modulation.
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