Effect of cigarette smoking on outcome after thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction.

Journal Article (Clinical Trial;Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Smoking is known to be a strong risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Unexpectedly, in the reperfusion era, investigators have reported that patients who smoke have a more favorable prognosis after thrombolysis compared with non-smokers. Since smoking is associated with a relatively hyper-coagulable state, we hypothesized that the coronary occlusion responsible for infarction may be primarily thrombotic, with improved outcome relating to enhanced patency or the absence of a residual stenosis after thrombolytic therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine this issue, we evaluated 1619 patients treated with TPA, urokinase, or both in six consecutive myocardial infarction trials, of whom 878 (54%) were currently smoking. Patients underwent 90-minute and predischarge catheterizations, which were quantified blinded to the patients' smoking status. As expected, baseline fibrinogen (2.8 [2.5,3.6] versus 2.7 [2.4,3.5] g/dL, P = .003) and hematocrit (44% [41%, 47%] versus 43% [40%, 45%], P = .0001) levels were greater in smokers. Although there were no differences between smokers and nonsmokers with regard to 90-minute patency (73% versus 74%), smokers were more likely to have TIMI-3 flow (41.1% versus 34.6%, P = .034), with a larger minimum lumen diameter of the infarct stenosis both acutely (0.82 [0.51, 1.11] versus 0.72 [0.43, 1.04] mm, P = .0432) and at follow-up (1.2 [0.8, 1.74] versus 1.0 [0.7, 1.5], P = .002). Although smokers tended to have reduced in-hospital mortality compared with nonsmokers in univariate analysis (4.0% versus 8.9%, P = .0001), after adjustment for baseline differences between smokers and nonsmokers in age (54 [47, 62] versus 60 [54, 68] years, P < .0001), inferior infarct location (60% versus 53%, P < .0001), three-vessel disease (16% versus 22%, P < .001), and baseline ejection fraction (53% [44%, 60%] versus 50% [42%, 58%], P = .0069), smoking history was of no independent prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, smokers have a relatively hypercoagulable state, documented by increased hematocrit and fibrinogen levels. Quantitative coronary angiographic analysis suggests that the mechanism of infarction in smokers is more often thrombosis of a less critical atherosclerotic lesion compared with nonsmokers. Enhanced perfusion status, as well as favorable baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics, may be responsible for the more benign prognosis of current smokers.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Grines, CL; Topol, EJ; O'Neill, WW; George, BS; Kereiakes, D; Phillips, HR; Leimberger, JD; Woodlief, LH; Califf, RM

Published Date

  • January 15, 1995

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 91 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 298 - 303

PubMed ID

  • 7805231

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0009-7322

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1161/01.cir.91.2.298


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States