Influence of diabetes mellitus on clinical outcomes across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. Findings from the GUSTO-IIb study. GUSTO IIb Investigators.
AIMS: We examined the characteristics, outcomes, and effects of hirudin vs heparin treatment of diabetic patients across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the 12,142 patients enrolled in the randomized GUSTO-IIb study. Diabetic patients (n=2175) were older, more often female, more often had prior cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia, and less often were current smokers. Diabetic patients had a higher overall incidence of death or (re)infarction at 30 days (13.1% vs 8.5%, P=0.0001), whether they presented with ST-segment elevation (13.9% vs 9.9%, P=0.0017) or not (12.8% vs 7.8%, P=0.0001), and at 6 months (18.8% vs 11.4%, P=0.0001). Among diabetic patients, hirudin was associated with a tendency toward a lower risk of death or (re)infarction at 30 days (12.2% vs 13.9% with heparin) and 6 months (17.8% vs 20.2%). Diabetic patients had more major bleeding, stroke, heart failure, shock, atrioventricular block, and atrial arrhythmias, but no increased risk for ocular bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes had worse 30-day and 6-month outcomes, particularly those without ST-segment elevation. The statistically non-significant trend toward improved outcomes with hirudin was similar among patients with and without diabetes, with a greater point estimate for the absolute difference in patients with diabetes.
McGuire, DK; Emanuelsson, H; Granger, CB; Magnus Ohman, E; Moliterno, DJ; White, HD; Ardissino, D; Box, JW; Califf, RM; Topol, EJ
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