Diabetes mellitus, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade, and heparin: evidence for a complex interaction in a multicenter trial. EPILOG Investigators.
BACKGROUND: After angioplasty, major complications and ischemic events occur more frequently in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. To determine whether treatment with abciximab is effective in reducing these events in diabetics, we analyzed characteristics and outcomes of diabetic patients enrolled in a large multicenter study (EPILOG). METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 2792 patients enrolled, 638 (23%) were diabetic. Diabetic patients were older, shorter, and heavier; more likely to be female and have three-vessel disease, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, a history of hypertension, or a recent myocardial infarction; and less likely to be current smokers than their nondiabetic counterparts. During hospitalization, death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization occurred in 7.1% of diabetics and 7.5% of nondiabetics. By 6 months, the composite of death and myocardial infarction had occurred in 8.8% of diabetic patients and 7.4% of nondiabetics, whereas death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization had occurred in 27.2% and 22.6%, respectively. Abciximab treatment reduced death or myocardial infarction among diabetic and nondiabetic patients (hazard ratios, 0.28 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.13 to 0.57] and 0.47 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.70] at 30 days for diabetics and nondiabetics, respectively, and 0.36 [95% CI, 0.21 to 0.61] and 0.60 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82] at 6 months for diabetics and nondiabetics, respectively). Abciximab reduced target vessel revascularization among nondiabetic patients (hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.96]) but not among diabetics (hazard ratio, 1.4 [95% CI, 0.94 to 2.08]). When standard- and low-dose heparin adjuncts were compared, diabetics receiving abciximab with standard-dose heparin had marginally greater reductions in the composite of death and myocardial infarction and in target vessel revascularization than diabetics assigned to abciximab with low-dose heparin. CONCLUSIONS: Abciximab treatment in diabetic patients led to a reduction in the composite of death and myocardial infarction, which was at least as great as that seen in nondiabetic patients. However, target vessel revascularization was reduced in nondiabetic but not diabetic patients. This effect may be associated in part with lower doses of heparin. These differences may be related to differences in the platelet and coagulation systems between diabetics and nondiabetics, the greater extent of coronary artery disease in diabetics, or patient selection and management factors.
Kleiman, NS; Lincoff, AM; Kereiakes, DJ; Miller, DP; Aguirre, FV; Anderson, KM; Weisman, HF; Califf, RM; Topol, EJ
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