Short- and long-term risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes: the added value of quantitative ST-segment depression and multiple biomarkers.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop 30-day and 1-year risk stratification models for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients that incorporate quantitative ST-segment depression and novel biomarkers. BACKGROUND: Several novel biomarkers have changed the risk profile of ACS; thus, the reassessment of traditional indicators such as ST-segment depression in this new context is warranted. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of 30-day death and death/myocardial infarction (MI) and 1-year mortality in 7,800 NSTE-ACS patients enrolled in the GUSTO-IV (Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries-IV ACS) trial between 1998 and 2000. RESULTS: Among all other predictors, the degree of ST-segment depression had the highest prognostic value for 30-day death, 30-day death/MI, and 1-year death. Troponin T (TnT), creatinine clearance, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), heart rate, and age were also highly influential on adverse outcomes. Unlike TnT and NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein was only predictive of long-term death. In contrast to mortality, the contribution of TnT to predicting 30-day death/MI increased, whereas NT-proBNP's role was attenuated. The discriminatory power was excellent (c-index [adjusted for over-optimism]: 0.82 [30-day death]; 0.72 [30-day death/MI]; 0.81 [1-year]). CONCLUSIONS: In this large contemporary study of NSTE-ACS patients, novel insights into risk stratification were observed-in particular, the utility of quantitative ST-segment depression and multiple biomarkers. Collection of these indicators in future NSTE-ACS populations is recommended to evaluate generalizability and clinical application of these findings.
Westerhout, CM; Fu, Y; Lauer, MS; James, S; Armstrong, PW; Al-Hattab, E; Califf, RM; Simoons, ML; Wallentin, L; Boersma, E; GUSTO-IV ACS Trial Investigators,
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