Long-term outcome and its predictors among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated by shock: insights from the GUSTO-I trial.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess long-term outcome and determine its predictors among 30-day survivors of cardiogenic shock. BACKGROUND: Patients with cardiogenic shock have high in-hospital and 30-day mortality, but there are little data about those who survive beyond 30 days. METHODS: We analyzed baseline, in-hospital, and survival data from patients in the U.S. with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and cardiogenic shock enrolled in the GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries)-I trial and compared them with patients in the same trial who did not have shock. RESULTS: Of 22,883 patients enrolled in the U.S., shock occurred in 1,891 (8.3%); 953 (50.4%) survived 30 days and 527 (27.8%) survived 11 years. Of 20,992 U.S. patients without shock, 20,360 (96.9%) survived 30 days and 14,131 (67.3%) survived 11 years. After the first year, 2% to 4% of patients died each year regardless of whether they had cardiogenic shock. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we were able to predict long-term mortality in all U.S. GUSTO-I 30-day survivors from their baseline demographics and in-hospital complications. The strongest predictors were diabetes mellitus, cardiogenic shock, hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, current smoking, anterior infarct, higher Killip class, higher heart rate, and older age; patients >75 years were at highest risk. Percutaneous revascularization during the index hospitalization was associated with a reduced risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with cardiogenic shock who survive 30 days after STEMI, annual mortality rates of 2% to 4% approximate those of patients without shock.
Singh, M; White, J; Hasdai, D; Hodgson, PK; Berger, PB; Topol, EJ; Califf, RM; Holmes, DR
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