Managing late complications of Parkinson's disease.


Journal Article (Review)

Treatment of parkinsonism becomes more difficult as the disease progresses, and results from increasing neuronal degeneration, side effects from antiparkinsonian medications, or most often, a combination of each. Neurodegenerative parkinson symptoms may result from substantia nigra destruction, or from other areas in the nervous system. These include the cortex (cognitive and psychiatric disorders), brainstem (bulbar abnormalities), intermediolateral cell column (autonomic disturbances), among others. Medication side effects produce motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, delirium, hallucinations, psychosis, orthostatic hypotension, sleep disorders, and a host of other well-recognized complications. This article is divided into sections concerning motor fluctuations, gait difficulty bulbar disturbances, autonomic disturbances, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders, and psychiatric disorders, and is an attempt to provide the reader with strategies for treating common complications in the advanced Parkinson's disease patient.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Stacy, M

Published Date

  • March 1999

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 83 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 469 - vii

PubMed ID

  • 10093588

Pubmed Central ID

  • 10093588

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1557-9859

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0025-7125

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/s0025-7125(05)70114-0


  • eng