Combined activity of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in vivo in mice.
The in vitro and in vivo activities of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) alone and in combination were studied to determine possible drug interactions against two strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, one sensitive to 5-FC and one resistant to 5-FC. In vitro tube dilution studies demonstrated only additive effects with the 5-FC-sensitive organism but antagonism with eth 5-FC-resistant organism. A mouse model of cryptococcal meningitis allowed comparative drug trails in a new model for the detection of drug interactions. Drug combinations were no more effective against meningitis caused by the 5-FC-sensitive organism than the additive effects of the individual drugs. However, meningitis caused by the 5-FC-resistant Cryptococcus responded less to drug combinations than to either drug alone. Serum levels of amphotericin B and 5-FC were comparable in all groups. No evidence of toxicity from the drug combinations was found. No inhibition of development of resistance to 5-FC by the combination with amphotericin B was detected.
Hamilton, JD; Elliott, DM
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