S-nitrosylation in health and disease.
S-nitrosylation is a ubiquitous redox-related modification of cysteine thiol by nitric oxide (NO), which transduces NO bioactivity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the products of S-nitrosylation, S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), play key roles in human health and disease. In this review, we focus on the reaction mechanisms underlying the biological responses mediated by SNOs. We emphasize reactions that can be identified with complex (patho)physiological responses, and that best rationalize the observed increase or decrease in specific classes of SNOs across a spectrum of disease states. Thus, changes in the levels of various SNOs depend on specific defects in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms of nitrosothiol formation, processing and degradation. An understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of an integrated model of NO biology, and for effective treatment of diseases associated with dysregulation of NO homeostasis.
Foster, MW; McMahon, TJ; Stamler, JS
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