Changes in tissue blood flow and sympathetic activities to various organs during prolonged hemorrhagic hypotension in monkeys.
This experiment was designed to determine whether prolonged hemorrhagic hypotension in anesthetized monkeys produces differential control of tissue blood flow and sympathetic nerve activities to various organs (heart, kidney, liver, spleen, and hind-limb). We performed simultaneous multifiber recording of sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney (RNA), heart (CNA), spleen (SpNA), liver (HNA), and hind-limb (LNA) during sustained hemorrhagic hypotension at a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 2 h. Immediately after bleeding, all of the sympathetic nerve activities increased significantly (Stage I) and then gradually decreased towards the prebleeding levels (Stage II). Thereafter, the secondary sympathetic excitation was observed (Stage III), followed by a gradual decrease in sympathetic activities below the prebleeding levels (Stage IV). The shed blood started to return to the animals at this final stage. Time course of changes in sympathetic nerve activities did not differ among organs innervated. However, tissue blood flow of the renal cortex, liver, skeletal muscle and spleen significantly decreased at Stage I and remained at low levels until the end of the experimental period. In contrast, blood flow of the renal medulla and heart was preserved until Stage III and Stage IV, respectively. These results indicate that although the sympathetic response to prolonged hemorrhagic hypotension of 40 mmHg did not differ among organs, changes in tissue blood flow were variable and blood flow to the heart and renal medulla was maintained at a steady level until a late stage of hemorrhage.
Tanaka, S; Matsuda, Y; Shibamoto, T; Wang, HG
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