Hookworm infection of the duodenum associated with dyspepsia and diagnosed by oesophagoduodenoscopy: case report.
Hookworm infection and peptic ulcer disease are common in subtropical and tropical countries. While hookworm infection is endemic where sanitary conditions are poor, peptic ulcer disease is associated with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dyspepsia and epigastric pain are common presenting symptoms of patients with either hookworm infection or peptic ulcer disease. Consequently it is common practice at our healthcare facility to examine stool for ova or parasites before considering empirical gastric acid suppressive therapy or Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. We describe a patient who presented with dyspepsia and epigastric pain whose stool examination showed no ova or parasites. The patient's symptoms did not improve with proton pump inhibitor therapy. Endoscopy revealed hookworms in the first part of the duodenum. We review published reports of hookworms at this location. In hookworm endemic areas, when empirical treatment for dyspepsia and upper abdominal pain with acid suppressive agents does not offer remedy, antihelminthic agents should be considered even when stool for ova or parasites is negative.
Kibiki, GS; Thielman, NM; Maro, VP; Sam, NE; Dolmans, WM; Crump, JA
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