Glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha and 3beta mediate a glucose-sensitive antiapoptotic signaling pathway to stabilize Mcl-1.
Journal Article (Journal Article)
Glucose uptake and utilization are growth factor-stimulated processes that are frequently upregulated in cancer cells and that correlate with enhanced cell survival. The mechanism of metabolic protection from apoptosis, however, has been unclear. Here we identify a novel signaling pathway initiated by glucose catabolism that inhibited apoptotic death of growth factor-deprived cells. We show that increased glucose metabolism protected cells against the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bim and attenuated degradation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1. Maintenance of Mcl-1 was critical for this protection, as glucose metabolism failed to protect Mcl-1-deficient cells from apoptosis. Increased glucose metabolism stabilized Mcl-1 in both cell lines and primary lymphocytes via inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3alpha and 3beta (GSK-3alpha/beta), which otherwise promoted Mcl-1 degradation. While a number of kinases can phosphorylate and inhibit GSK-3alpha/beta, we provide evidence that protein kinase C may be stimulated by glucose-induced alterations in diacylglycerol levels or distribution to phosphorylate GSK-3alpha/beta, maintain Mcl-1 levels, and inhibit cell death. These data provide a novel nutrient-sensitive mechanism linking glucose metabolism and Bcl-2 family proteins via GSK-3 that may promote survival of cells with high rates of glucose utilization, such as growth factor-stimulated or cancerous cells.
- Zhao, Y; Altman, BJ; Coloff, JL; Herman, CE; Jacobs, SR; Wieman, HL; Wofford, JA; Dimascio, LN; Ilkayeva, O; Kelekar, A; Reya, T; Rathmell, JC
- June 2007
Volume / Issue
- 27 / 12
Start / End Page
- 4328 - 4339
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States