Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in HL-60 leukemia cells by pentoxifylline and dexamethasone: dissociation of acivicin-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression from acivicin-induced monocytoid differentiation.
We have previously noted that the glutamine antagonist acivicin (alpha S,5S-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid) induces monocytoid differentiation of freshly isolated human myeloid leukemia cells and cells of the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60, and that the differentiation is accompanied by increases in expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Because we also showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta can act synergistically to cause monocytoid differentiation of HL-60 cells, we hypothesized that acivicin-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, in an autocrine manner, caused the differentiation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the causal roles of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the acivicin-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells by the use of dexamethasone (DEX) and pentoxifylline (PTX), two drugs that effectively inhibit expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. Acivicin caused a monocytoid differentiation of the cells as manifest by diminished cell growth, morphologic maturation of the cells, increased ability to generate hydrogen peroxide in response to acute treatment with phorbol myristate acetate, and increased expression of nonspecific esterase and the surface antigens CD14 and CD11b. Acivicin treatment also caused the cells to have diminished steady-state expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for c-myc and c-myb, and increased expression of mRNA for TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. DEX and PTX did not alter cell growth, and did not block the acivicin-induced block in growth. PTX caused a slight increase in nonspecific esterase expression, but DEX had no effect on this, and neither drug diminished the acivicin-induced increase in nonspecific esterase. Although neither drug alone lessened the acivicin enhancement of hydrogen peroxide production, DEX and PTX together reduced this. DEX did not modify the acivicin-induced morphologic maturation of the cells, but PTX alone or PTX with DEX potentiated the acivicin-induced increase in mature cells. Basal CD14 and CD11b expression were slightly reduced by DEX and PTX, but neither drug modified the acivicin-induced increases. DEX and PTX reduced the acivicin-induced increases in TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA expression, but they had little or no effect on the acivicin-induced decreases in expression of mRNA for c-myc and c-myb. Thus, DEX and PTX effectively block the acivicin-induced expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, but they have little influence on the acivicin-induced differentiation process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Weinberg, JB; Mason, SN; Wortham, TS
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