Differential effects of nitric oxide on erythroid and myeloid colony growth from CD34+ human bone marrow cells.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive molecule with numerous physiologic and pathophysiologic roles affecting the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems. In previous work, we have demonstrated that NO inhibits the growth and induces the monocytic differentiation of cells of the HL-60 cell line. We have also demonstrated that NO inhibits the growth of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cells freshly isolated from untreated patients and increases monocytic differentiation antigens in some. In the present work, we studied the effect of NO on the growth and differentiation of normal human bone marrow cells in vitro. Mononuclear cells isolated from human bone marrow were cultured in semisolid media and treated with the NO-donating agents sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) (0.25 to 1 mmol/L). Both agents decreased colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) and colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) formation by 34% to 100%. When CD34+ cells were examined, we noted that these cells responded to SNP and SNAP differently than did the mononuclear cells. At a concentration range of 0.25 to 1 mmol/L, SNP inhibited the growth of CFU-E by 30% to 75%. However, at the same concentration range, SNP increased the number of CFU-GM by up to 94%. At concentrations of 0.25 to 1 mmol/L, SNAP inhibited the growth of CFU-E by 33% to 100%. At a concentration of 0.25 mmol/L, SNAP did not affect CFU-GM. At higher concentrations, SNAP inhibited the growth of CFU-GM. Although SNP increased intracellular levels of cGMP in bone marrow cells, increasing cGMP in cells by addition of 8-Br-cGMP (a membrane permeable cGMP analogue) did not reproduce the observed NO effects on bone marrow colonies. These results demonstrate that NO can influence the growth and differentiation of normal human bone marrow cells. NO (generated in the bone marrow microenvironment) may play an important role modulating the growth and differentiation of bone marrow cells in vivo.
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