Nitric-oxide synthase output state. Design and properties of nitric-oxide synthase oxygenase/FMN domain constructs.
Mammalian nitric-oxide synthases are large modular enzymes that evolved from independently expressed ancestors. Calmodulin-controlled isoforms are signal generators; calmodulin activates electron transfer from NADPH through three reductase domains to an oxygenase domain. Structures of the reductase unit and its homologs show FMN and FAD in contact but too isolated from the protein surface to permit exit of reducing equivalents. To study states in which FMN/heme electron transfer is feasible, we designed and produced constructs including only oxygenase and FMN binding domains, eliminating strong internal reductase complex interactions. Constructs for all mammalian isoforms were expressed and purified as dimers. All synthesize NO with peroxide as the electron donor at rates comparable with corresponding oxygenase constructs. All bind cofactors nearly stoichiometrically and have native catalytic sites by spectroscopic criteria. Modest differences in electrochemistry versus independently expressed heme and FMN binding domains suggest interdomain interactions. These interactions can be convincingly demonstrated via calmodulin-induced shifts in high spin ferriheme EPR spectra and through mutual broadening of heme and FMNH. radical signals in inducible nitric-oxide synthase constructs. Blue neutral FMN semiquinone can be readily observed; potentials of one electron couple (in inducible nitric-oxide synthase oxygenase FMN, FMN oxidized/semiquinone couple = +70 mV, FMN semiquinone/hydroquinone couple = -180 mV, and heme = -180 mV) indicate that FMN is capable of serving as a one electron heme reductant. The construct will serve as the basis for future studies of the output state for NADPH derived reducing equivalents.
Ghosh, DK; Holliday, MA; Thomas, C; Weinberg, JB; Smith, SME; Salerno, JC
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