Promoter analysis of Zfp-36, the mitogen-inducible gene encoding the zinc finger protein tristetraprolin.
The gene encoding the putative zinc finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP), Zfp-36, is rapidly induced by a variety of mitogens and growth factors. We show here that 77 base pairs 5' of the transcription start site are sufficient for full serum inducibility of the mouse Zfp-36 promoter. This region of the promoter includes consensus sequences for the binding of the transcription factors EGR-1, AP2, and Sp1. In addition, we have identified a previously undescribed element, TTP promoter element 1 (TPE1); this 10-base pair sequence includes a palindrome and is identical in the human, bovine, and mouse genes. Each of the three binding elements, EGR-1, AP2, and TPE1, contribute to the serum induction of Zfp-36 and can confer serum-inducible expression on a heterologous minimal promoter. Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated the formation of complexes consisting of this region of the promoter and cellular nuclear proteins and demonstrated that the extent of complex formation could be altered by treatment of the cells with serum or insulin. These results suggest that the response of Zfp-36 to serum and other mitogens is mediated by a series of cis-acting elements acting in concert to confer full inducible transcription of this gene.
Lai, WS; Thompson, MJ; Taylor, GA; Liu, Y; Blackshear, PJ
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