Risk factors for human anthrax among contacts of anthrax-infected livestock in Kazakhstan.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in Kazakhstan to define modifiable risk factors during seven outbreaks of human anthrax. Fifty-three cases and 255 non-ill persons with an epidemiologic link to an infected animal were enrolled. Cases were 58% male and had a median age of 35 years (range = 5-71). Nearly all cases had cutaneous disease (96%). Two patients (4%) were diagnosed with gastrointestinal disease. Although all cases had some contact with an infected animal other than consumption, in multivariable analysis the act of butchering an animal (relative risk [RR] = 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-9.6) and the presence of visible cuts on the hands were associated with anthrax (RR = 3.0, 95% CI = 0.9-9.6). Contact with infected livestock, in particular butchering, is associated with developing anthrax. The risk may be exacerbated by the presence of cuts on the hands at the time of contact with the animal or animal products.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Woods, CW; Ospanov, K; Myrzabekov, A; Favorov, M; Plikaytis, B; Ashford, DA

Published Date

  • July 1, 2004

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 71 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 48 - 52

PubMed ID

  • 15238688

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0002-9637


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States