Traumatic hyphema in children: risk factors for complications.
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with higher rates of ocular complications in children with traumatic hyphema. METHODS: Consecutive inpatient records from July 1990 through December 1997 were retrospectively reviewed for all children (aged < or = 18 years) who were admitted to the Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Baltimore, Md, within 48 hours of a closed-globe injury leading to hyphema. Data obtained included age, sex, race, sickle cell status, initial and final visual acuities, hyphema size and intraocular pressure at presentation, the occurrence of a secondary hemorrhage, subsequent intraocular pressure elevations, and therapeutic interventions. RESULTS: Forty children fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 20 African American, 1 Asian American, and 19 white. Five of the 20 African American children had sickle cell trait, and 1 had sickle cell anemia. The rate of secondary hemorrhage was statistically higher in the African American population (P =.05), but no statistical difference existed between the rate of secondary hemorrhage in patients with and without sickle cell hemoglobinopathy. Sickle cell hemoglobinopathy was associated with a higher intraocular pressure at presentation (P =.03) and during inpatient follow-up (P =.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of traumatic hyphema, African American children appear to be at greater risk for developing a secondary hemorrhage. In our patients, sickle cell hemoglobinopathy increased the risk of intraocular pressure elevation, but did not seem to increase the risk of rebleeding beyond that associated with race. Larger studies are needed to validate these observations.
Lai, JC; Fekrat, S; Barrón, Y; Goldberg, MF
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