Laboratory and field trials at Ifakara (Kilombero District, Tanzania) on the plant molluscicide Swartzia madagascariensis.
The molluscicidal activity of crushed seed pods of Swartzia madagascariensis was assessed by laboratory and field trials. Mature dry seed pods were ground and extracted in tap water for 24 h. Water extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against Bulinus globosus up to dilutions of 100 mg of ground pods per litre. The chromatographically isolated saponin (1) responsible for the molluscicidal activity showed a toxicity of LC 100 at 3 mg/l after exposure of B. globosus and Biomphalaria glabrata for 24 h. Saponin (1) could be identified by FAB-MS and 13C-NMR-spectroscopy as oleanolic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl (1----3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside. Two field trials with S. madagascariensis pod extracts in ponds (60 and 160 m3) harbouring dense populations of B. globosus compared well with the laboratory findings and showed the efficiency of the molluscicide in a natural habitat. A single application of the plant molluscicide significantly reduced the populations of B. globusus. The toxicity of S. madagascariensis pod extracts to non-target organisms remains an obstacle for its use in certain situations where schistosomiasis control is envisaged and where S. madagascariensis is found. However, S. madagascariensis is a valid candidate molluscicide which may be applied in selected epidemiological settings as part of integrated schistosomiasis control measures.
Suter, R; Tanner, M; Borel, C; Hostettmann, K; Freyvogel, TA
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