Adjuvant radiotherapy with and without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter.
PURPOSE: Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy. The role of adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy is not well defined. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 patients who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy to determine overall outcome as well as impact of concurrent chemotherapy administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1970 and 1997, 31 patients with nonmetastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (renal pelvis in 13, ureter in 15, and renal pelvis and ureter in 3) were treated with radiotherapy following attempted curative resection. Most patients (28 of 31) had T3/4 and/or N+ disease. The median radiation dose was 46.9 Gy. Nine patients received methotrexate, cisplatin and vinblastine chemotherapy for 2 to 4 cycles, followed by concurrent cisplatin with radiation. RESULTS: Median followup was 2.6 years in all patients and 8.5 years in survivors. Median survival in all patients was 2.4 years. Of the patients 16 (52%) experienced disease relapse, including 9 (29%) with distant metastases alone. Seven patients (23%) experienced locoregional failure with distant metastases developing in all except 1 within 8 months of locoregional failure diagnosis. Five-year actuarial overall survival, disease specific survival, locoregional control and metastasis-free survival rates were 39%, 52%, 67% and 48%, respectively. On univariate analysis patients had improved 5-year actuarial overall and disease specific survival with the administration of concurrent chemotherapy (27% vs 67%, p = 0.01 and 41% vs 76%, p = 0.06, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our series suggests that the addition of concurrent cisplatin to adjuvant radiotherapy improves the ultimate outcome in patients with resected, locally advanced upper tract urothelial malignancies. This regimen should be considered in patients with T3/4 and/or node positive upper tract transitional cell carcinoma.
Czito, B; Zietman, A; Kaufman, D; Skowronski, U; Shipley, W
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