Inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression in C57BL/6J mice after lethal and sublethal ozone exposures.
Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive and toxic oxidant pollutant. The objective of this study is to compare cytokine, chemokine, and metallothionein (Mt) changes elicited by lethal and sublethal exposure to ozone in a genetically sensitive strain of mice. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 0.3 ppm ozone for 0, 24, or 96 hours; 1.0 ppm ozone for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours; or 2.5 ppm ozone for 0, 2, 4, or 24 hours. After 24 hours of exposure to 0.3 ppm ozone, increases in mRNA abundance were detected for messages encoding eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, and MIP-2. These increases persisted through 96 hours of exposure. At this time point messages encoding lymphotactin (Ltn) and metallothionein were also increased. After 4 hours of 1.0 ppm ozone exposure, increases in mRNA abundance were detected for messages encoding eotaxin, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-2, and interleukin (IL)-6. Mt mRNA abundance was increased after 1 hour of exposure and persisted through 4 hours, although the magnitude of the alterations increased. After 2 hours of 2.5 ppm ozone exposure, increases were detected for messages encoding eotaxin, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-2, IL-6, and Mt. These increases persisted through 4 hours of exposure. Lung weights of mice exposed to 2.5 ppm ozone for 24 hours were approximately 2 times greater than air-exposed mice. At this dose lethality occurred by 36 hours. Increased mRNAs for eotaxin, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-2, and Mt were to a higher magnitude than were detected after 2 and 4 hours of exposure. Messages encoding IL-12, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1Ra were unaltered at all time points and doses examined. Our results demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in chemokine, cytokine, and Mt mRNA abundance and that early acute changes may be predictive of subacute and chronic responses to ozone.
Johnston, CJ; Stripp, BR; Reynolds, SD; Avissar, NE; Reed, CK; Finkelstein, JN
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