Neural crest and cardiovascular development: a 20-year perspective.
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago this year was the first publication describing a region of neural crest cells necessary for normal cardiovascular development. Ablation of this region in chick resulted in persistent truncus arteriosus, mispatterning of the great vessels, outflow malalignments, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the pharyngeal glands. METHODS: We begin with a historical perspective and then review the progress that has been made in the ensuing 20 years in determining the direct and indirect contributions of the neural crest cells, now termed cardiac neural crest cells, in cardiovascular and pharyngeal arch development. Many of the molecular pathways that are now known to influence the specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are also reviewed. RESULTS: Although much knowledge has been gained by using many genetic manipulations to understand the cardiac neural crest cells' role in cardiovascular development, most models fail to explain the phenotypes seen in syndromic and non-syndromic human congenital heart defects, such as the DiGeorge syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the cardiac neural crest exists as part of a larger cardiocraniofacial morphogenetic field and describe several human syndromes that result from abnormal development of this field.
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