Molecular analysis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia with growth hormone deficiency.
To address the relationship between the gene (or genes) that causes the syndrome of X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia with isolated growth hormone deficiency and the gene responsible for typical X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), we have used cytogenetics, examination of X chromosome inactivation patterns in potential carriers of the defect, and linkage analysis to study two unrelated families in which the affected males had isolated growth hormone deficiency and immunologic findings indistinguishable from those of typical XLA. A deletion could not be demonstrated in either family by G-banded karyotypes or flow cytometric analysis of metaphase chromosomes. Studies of X inactivation showed that mothers of affected boys from both families exhibited selective use of a single X chromosome as the active X chromosome in B cells but not T cells. This pattern is the same as that seen in obligate carriers of typical XLA. Linkage analysis demonstrated the most likely location for this gene (or genes) to be the midportion of the long arm of the X chromosome between DXS3 and DXS94. This segment of the X chromosome, which constitutes approximately 5% of the total X chromosome, encompasses the gene for XLA. These findings are consistent with the combination of XLA and growth hormone deficiency being caused by a small, contiguous, gene deletion syndrome involving the gene for XLA or an allelic variant of the gene for typical XLA.
Conley, ME; Burks, AW; Herrod, HG; Puck, JM
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