Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential.
A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm(3), the -6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm(3), and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm(3). Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector.
Iloreta, JI; Zhou, Y; Sankin, GN; Zhong, P; Szeri, AJ
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