Genomic cloning of hGSTP1*C, an allelic human Pi class glutathione S-transferase gene variant and functional characterization of its retinoic acid response elements.
The complete hGSTP1*C, consisting of 7 exons and 6 introns contained in 3116 base pairs, was isolated from a cosmid genomic library of a glioblastoma multiforme cell line. Although the promoter of hGSTP1*C was identical to that of the previously reported GST-Pi gene, several of its structural features had not been previously described. These include several nucleotide transitions and transversions. Transitions of A --> G at +1404 and C --> T at +2294 in exons 5 and 6, respectively, changed codons Ile104 to Val104 and Ala113 to Val113. The gene also contained a guanine insertion at +51 in the insulin response element in intron 1 and six tandem repeats and one palindromic retinoic acid response element (RARE) consensus half-sites, A(G)GG(T)TC(G)A in intron 5. Retinoic acid (RA) treatment increased GST-Pi gene expression significantly in MGR3 cells. GST-Pi gene constructs with and without RARE deletion were used to show the RARE requirement for GST-Pi gene induction by RA. The isolation of the hGSTP1*C gene and the evidence that it contains functional RAREs should contribute to a better understanding of the molecular regulation of the GST-Pi gene in human cells.
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