Assessment and management of pain syndromes and arthritis pain in children and adolescents.
Chronic musculoskeletal pain, whether it is idiopathic or disease-related, is common in childhood. Pediatric rheumatologists and other pediatric health care providers must understand the epidemiology of musculoskeletal pain as part of childhood, diagnose pain syndromes in children and rule out rheumatic disease, and be willing to initiate treatment of pain in children and adolescents. Practitioners' ability to carry out these tasks is enhanced by an awareness of the biopsychosocial model of pain, which integrates biologic, environmental, and cognitive behavioral mechanisms in describing the causes and maintenance of children's pain. A growing body of research in rheumatic diseases, such as JIA, and idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndromes, such as JPFS, highlights the importance of environmental and cognitive behavioral influences in the pain experience of children in addition to the contribution of disease activity. These influences include factors innate in the child, such as emotional distress, daily stress, coping, and mood, and familial factors, such as parental psychologic health, parental pain history, and the nature of family interactions. Addressing these issues, while providing aggressive traditional medical management, optimizes pain treatment and improves overall quality of life for children who have musculoskeletal pain.
Anthony, KK; Schanberg, LE
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