A role for receptor kinases in the regulation of class II G protein-coupled receptors. Phosphorylation and desensitization of the secretin receptor.
The secretin receptor is a member of a structurally distinct class of G protein-coupled receptors designated as Class II. The molecular mechanisms of secretin receptor signal termination are unknown. Using transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing the secretin receptor, we investigated its mechanisms of desensitization. Binding of [125I]-secretin to plasma membranes of receptor-expressing cells was specific, with a Kd of 2 nM. Secretin evoked an increase in cellular cAMP with an EC50 of 0.4 nM. The response was maximal by 20 min and desensitized rapidly and completely. Immunoprecipitation of a functional, N-terminal epitope-tagged secretin receptor was used to demonstrate agonist-dependent receptor phosphorylation, with an EC50 of 14 nM. Pretreatment with protein kinase A or C inhibitors failed to alter secretin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are known to be involved in the desensitization of Class I G protein-coupled receptors; therefore, the effect of cotransfection of GRKs on secretin-stimulated cAMP signaling and phosphorylation was evaluated. GRKs 2 and 5 were the most potent at augmenting desensitization, causing a 40% reduction in the maximal cAMP response to secretin. GRK 5 also caused a shift in the EC50 to the right (p < 0.05). GRK 4 and GRK 6 did not alter dose-dependent signaling, and GRK 3 was intermediate in effect. Receptor phosphorylation correlated with desensitization for each GRK studied, whereas second messenger-dependent kinase phosphorylation appeared to be less important in secretin receptor signal termination. We demonstrate agonist-dependent secretin receptor phosphorylation coincident with profound receptor desensitization of the signaling function in HEK 293 cells, suggesting a role for receptor phosphorylation in this paradigm. Although GRK activity appears important in secretin receptor desensitization in HEK 293 cells, protein kinases A and C appear to play only a minor role. These results demonstrate that the GRK-arrestin system regulates Class II G protein-coupled receptors.
Shetzline, MA; Premont, RT; Walker, JK; Vigna, SR; Caron, MG
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