Effects of vasomotor- and mediator-induced hypotension on bronchomotor tone in swine.
We studied the sympathetic neural response on airways to hypotensive stimuli in 19 swine in vivo. The effects of pharmacologically induced hypotension with nitroprusside (NTP) and hypotension elicited by intravenous compound 48/80 (48/80), a mast cell degranulating agent, were compared after equivalent reductions in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Reduction of the MAP to 60% of base line with NTP in six swine caused an increase in plasma epinephrine (E) from 60 +/- 28 to 705 +/- 276 pg/ml (P = 0.032) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) from 270 +/- 46 to 796 +/- 131 pg/ml (P = 0.032). Comparable reduction in MAP elicited with 48/80 in six other swine caused a substantially greater increase in both plasma E (9,581 +/- 4,147 pg/ml; P = 0.012 vs. NTP group) and plasma NE (2,239 +/- 637 pg/ml; P = 0.041 vs. NTP group). Catecholamine secretion attenuated mediator-induced changes in lung resistance (RL). In animals receiving 48/80, RL increased from 2.97 +/- 0.31 to 7.44 +/- 0.56 cmH2O.l-1.s. In animals having ganglionic blockade with 7.5 mg/kg iv hexamethonium and beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol (4.0 mg/kg iv followed by 40 micrograms/kg-1.min-1), comparable doses of 48/80 caused an increase in RL to 18.6 +/- 4.55 cmH2O.l-1.s (P less than 0.04 vs. swine receiving neither hexamethonium nor propranolol).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
White, SR; Blake, JS; Murphy, TM; Mack, MM; Munoz, NM; Leff, AR
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