Inhibitors of histone deacetylases promote hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal.
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with a variety of transcriptional repressors that control cellular differentiation and proliferation. HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A, trapoxin and chlamydocin could be useful tools to modulate these cellular processes. We investigated their effect on the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during ex vivo culture. METHODS: Purified murine HSC with the phenotype c-Kit+,Thy-1.1(lo), Lin(-/lo), Sca-1+ were cultured for 4 days with IL-3, IL-6 and c-Kit ligand without or with HDAC inhibitors, after which their degree of phenotypic differentiation in culture was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. To explore whether HDAC inhibitors could have a beneficial role in human HSC transplantation, mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cells were cultured with thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, flt3 ligand, and c-Kit ligand, without or with various HDAC inhibitors. The fluorescent dye, carboxyfluorescein-diacetate succinimidylester (CFSE), was used to track division of cell subsets, and engrafting ability was evaluated in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) -SCID xenotransplantation model. RESULTS: Murine HSC cultured with HDAC inhibitors maintained a more primitive phenotype than control cultures. The number of human HSC expressing Thy-1 increased up to seven-fold during a 5-day culture with HDAC inhibitors compared with control cultures. Chlamydocin was the most effective of the HDAC inhibitors tested at promoting Thy-1 expression on human cells. CFSE tracking showed that the increase in Thy-1+ cells resulted from cell division. In a NOD-SCID repopulation assay, cells exposed to chlamydocin for 24 h displayed an average four-fold higher engrafting ability over control cells. DISCUSSION: Our studies suggest that HDAC inhibitors can induce ex vivo expansion of human HSC, and may improve engraftment in hematopoietic transplant patients when cell dose is limiting.
Young, JC; Wu, S; Hansteen, G; Du, C; Sambucetti, L; Remiszewski, S; O'Farrell, A-M; Hill, B; Lavau, C; Murray, LJ
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