Combination immunotherapy with clinical-scale enriched human gammadelta T cells, hu14.18 antibody, and the immunocytokine Fc-IL7 in disseminated neuroblastoma.
PURPOSE: To evaluate a combined cellular and humoral immunotherapy regimen in a mouse model of disseminated human neuroblastoma. We tested combinations of clinical-grade, isolated human gammadelta T cells with the humanized anti-GD2 antibody hu14.18 and a novel fusion cytokine, Fc-IL7. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: gammadelta T cells were large-scale enriched from leukapheresis product obtained from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized donors. gammadelta T cell cytotoxicity was tested in a europium-TDA release assay. The effect of Fc-IL7 on gammadelta T-cell survival in vitro was assessed by flow cytometry. NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/J mice received 1 x 10(6) NB-1691 neuroblastoma cells via the tail vein 5 to 6 days before therapy began. Treatment, for five consecutive weeks, consisted of injections of 1 x 10(6) gammadelta T cells weekly, 1 x 10(6) gammadelta T cells weekly, and 20 microg hu14.18 antibody four times per week, or 1 x 10(6) gammadelta T cells weekly with 20 microg hu14.18 antibody four times per week, and 20 mug Fc-IL7 once weekly. RESULTS: The natural cytotoxicity of gammadelta T cells to NB-1691 cells in vitro was dramatically enhanced by hu14.18 antibody. Fc-IL7 effectively kept cultured gammadelta T cells viable. Combination therapy with gammadelta T cells and hu14.18 antibody significantly enhanced survival (P = 0.001), as did treatment with gammadelta T cells, hu14.18 antibody, and Fc-IL7 (P = 0.005). Inclusion of Fc-IL7 offered an additional survival benefit (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We have shown a new and promising immunotherapy regimen for neuroblastoma that requires clinical evaluation. Our approach might also serve as a therapeutic model for other malignancies.
Otto, M; Barfield, RC; Martin, WJ; Iyengar, R; Leung, W; Leimig, T; Chaleff, S; Gillies, SD; Handgretinger, R
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