Counterions influence reactivity of metal ions with cysteinyldopa model compounds.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Cysteinyldopas are naturally occurring conjugates of cysteine and dopa (3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine) that are precursors to red pheomelanin pigments. Metal ions are known to influence pheomelanogenesis in vitro and may be regulatory factors in vivo. Cydo (3-[(2-amino-ethyl)sulfanyl]-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzene-1,2-diol) and CarboxyCydo (2-amino-3-(4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,3-dihydroxyphenylsulfanyl)-propionic acid) are model compounds of cysteinyldopa that retain its metal-binding functionalities but cannot polymerize due to the presence of blocking tert-butyl groups. Cydo reacts readily with zinc(II) acetate or nickel(II) acetate to form a cyclized 1,4-benzothiazine (zine) intermediate that undergoes ring contraction to form benzothiazole (zole) unless it is stabilized by coordination to a metal ion. The crystal structure of [Ni(zine)2] is reported. The acetate counteranion is required for the zinc-promoted reactivity, as neither zinc(II) sulfate nor zinc(II) chloride alone promotes the transformation. The counterion is less important for redox-active copper and iron, which both readily promote the oxidation of Cydo to zine and zole species; Cu(II) complexes of both zine and zole have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the case of CarboxyCydo, a 3-carboxy-1,4-benzothiazine intermediate decarboxylates to form [Cu(zine)2] under basic conditions, but in the absence of base forms a mixture of products that includes the carboxylated dimer 2,2'-bibenzothiazine (bi-zine). These products are consistent with species implicated in the pheomelanogenesis biosynthetic pathway and emphasize how metal ions, their counteranions, and reaction conditions can alter pheomelanin product distribution.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tesema, YT; Pham, DM; Franz, KJ

Published Date

  • February 2008

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 47 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 1087 - 1095

PubMed ID

  • 18163613

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1520-510X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0020-1669

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1021/ic701889w


  • eng