The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Ming, R; Hou, S; Feng, Y; Yu, Q; Dionne-Laporte, A; Saw, JH; Senin, P; Wang, W; Ly, BV; Lewis, KLT; Salzberg, SL; Feng, L; Jones, MR; Skelton, RL; Murray, JE; Chen, C; Qian, W; Shen, J; Du, P; Eustice, M; Tong, E; Tang, H; Lyons, E; Paull, RE; Michael, TP; Wall, K; Rice, DW; Albert, H; Wang, M-L; Zhu, YJ; Schatz, M; Nagarajan, N; Acob, RA; Guan, P; Blas, A; Wai, CM; Ackerman, CM; Ren, Y; Liu, C; Wang, J; Wang, J; Na, J-K; Shakirov, EV; Haas, B; Thimmapuram, J; Nelson, D; Wang, X; Bowers, JE; Gschwend, AR; Delcher, AL; Singh, R; Suzuki, JY; Tripathi, S; Neupane, K; Wei, H; Irikura, B; Paidi, M; Jiang, N; Zhang, W; Presting, G; Windsor, A; Navajas-Pérez, R; Torres, MJ; Feltus, FA; Porter, B; Li, Y; Burroughs, AM; Luo, M-C; Liu, L; Christopher, DA; Mount, SM; Moore, PH; Sugimura, T; Jiang, J; Schuler, MA; Friedman, V; Mitchell-Olds, T; Shippen, DE; dePamphilis, CW; Palmer, JD; Freeling, M; Paterson, AH; Gonsalves, D; Wang, L; Alam, M

Published Date

  • April 2008

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 452 / 7190

Start / End Page

  • 991 - 996

PubMed ID

  • 18432245

Pubmed Central ID

  • 18432245

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-4687

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0028-0836

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/nature06856


  • eng