The three-dimensional vestibulo-ocular reflex evoked by high-acceleration rotations in the squirrel monkey.
The aim of this study was to determine if the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to pitch, roll, left anterior-right posterior (LARP), and right anterior-left posterior (RALP) head rotations exhibited the same linear and nonlinear characteristics as those found in the horizontal VOR. Three-dimensional eye movements were recorded with the scleral search coil technique. The VOR in response to rotations in five planes (horizontal, vertical, torsional, LARP, and RALP) was studied in three squirrel monkeys. The latency of the VOR evoked by steps of acceleration in darkness (3,000 degrees /s(2) reaching a velocity of 150 degrees /s) was 5.8+/-1.7 ms and was the same in response to head rotations in all five planes of rotation. The gain of the reflex during the acceleration was 36.7+/-15.4% greater than that measured at the plateau of head velocity. Polynomial fits to the trajectory of the response show that eye velocity is proportional to the cube of head velocity in all five planes of rotation. For sinusoidal rotations of 0.5-15 Hz with a peak velocity of 20 degrees /s, the VOR gain did not change with frequency (0.74+/-0.06, 0.74+/-0.07, 0.37+/-0.05, 0.69+/-0.06, and 0.64+/-0.06, for yaw, pitch, roll, LARP, and RALP respectively). The VOR gain increased with head velocity for sinusoidal rotations at frequencies > or =4 Hz. For rotational frequencies > or =4 Hz, we show that the vertical, torsional, LARP, and RALP VORs have the same linear and nonlinear characteristics as the horizontal VOR. In addition, we show that the gain, phase and axis of eye rotation during LARP and RALP head rotations can be predicted once the pitch and roll responses are characterized.
Migliaccio, AA; Schubert, MC; Jiradejvong, P; Lasker, DM; Clendaniel, RA; Minor, LB
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