Binding of hexabrachion (tenascin) to the extracellular matrix and substratum and its effect on cell adhesion.
Hexabrachion is a large glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is prominent in embryogenesis, wound healing and tumorigenesis. Because of the role of extracellular matrix proteins in the regulation of cell differentiation and migration, the interaction of hexabrachion with cells as well as with other components of the ECM is of great interest. Early reports suggested that hexabrachion does not bind to fibronectin or gelatin but does bind to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. However, more recent reports have suggested that hexabrachion binds to fibronectin and inhibits cell adhesion as well as cell migration on fibronectin. We have found no evidence of strong hexabrachion-fibronectin binding on either a solid-phase ELISA assay or in a fluid-phase sedimentation assay in which the reactants were allowed to dissociate. However, hexabrachion sedimentation was accelerated in a gradient containing fibronectin throughout. This demonstrates an association between hexabrachions and fibronectin, but the complex is apparently weak and readily reversible. The solid-phase ELISA also shows no evidence of hexabrachion binding to gelatin, laminin or types I, III, IV or V collagen. Hexabrachion does not support strong cell attachment of the cell lines tested. Moreover, hexabrachion can inhibit cell attachment to fibronectin. We demonstrate here that this inhibition requires the hexabrachion to be able to bind to the plastic substratum. The results suggest that hexabrachion inhibition is via a steric inhibition. When the hexabrachion molecules bind to the plastic, they cover up a significant fraction of the underlying fibronectin molecules. Antibody studies are presented that show that hexabrachion can nonspecifically block access of immunoglobulin G molecules to the underlying matrix. This steric blocking is not unique to hexabrachion.
Lightner, VA; Erickson, HP
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