A second human antiretroviral factor, APOBEC3F, is suppressed by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif proteins.
The HIV-1 Vif protein suppresses the inhibition of viral replication caused by the human antiretroviral factor APOBEC3G. As a result, HIV-1 mutants that do not express the Vif protein are replication incompetent in 'nonpermissive' cells, such as primary T cells and the T-cell line CEM, that express APOBEC3G. In contrast, Vif-defective HIV-1 replicates effectively in 'permissive' cell lines, such as a derivative of CEM termed CEM-SS, that do not express APOBEC3G. Here, we show that a second human protein, APOBEC3F, is also specifically packaged into HIV-1 virions and inhibits their infectivity. APOBEC3F binds the HIV-1 Vif protein specifically and Vif suppresses both the inhibition of virus infectivity caused by APOBEC3F and virion incorporation of APOBEC3F. Surprisingly, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are extensively coexpressed in nonpermissive human cells, including primary lymphocytes and the cell line CEM, where they form heterodimers. In contrast, both genes are quiescent in the permissive CEM derivative CEM-SS. Together, these data argue that HIV-1 Vif has evolved to suppress at least two distinct but related human antiretroviral DNA-editing enzymes.
Wiegand, HL; Doehle, BP; Bogerd, HP; Cullen, BR
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