Cerebral hemorrhage and edema following brain biopsy in rats: significance of mean arterial blood pressure.
OBJECT: It is taken for granted that patients with hypertension are at greater risk for intracerebral hemorrhage during neurosurgical procedures than patients with normal blood pressure. The anesthesiologist, therefore, maintains mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) near the lower end of the autoregulation curve, which in patients with preexisting hypertension can be as high as 110 to 130 mm Hg. Whether patients with long-standing hypertension experience more hemorrhage than normotensive patients after brain surgery if their blood pressure is maintained at the presurgical hypertensive level is currently unknown. The authors tested this hypothesis experimentally in a rodent model. METHODS: Hemorrhage and edema in the brain after needle biopsy was measured in vivo by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy in the following groups: WKY rats, acutely hypertensive WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR strain), and SHR rats treated with either sodium nitroprusside or nicardipine. Group differences were compared using Tukey's studentized range test followed by individual pairwise comparisons of groups and adjusted for multiple comparisons. There were no differences in PaCO2, pH, and body temperature among the groups. The findings in this study indicated that only acutely hypertensive WKY rats had larger volumes of hemorrhage. Chronically hypertensive SHR rats with MABPs of 130 mm Hg did not have larger hemorrhages than normotensive rats. There were no differences in edema volumes among groups. CONCLUSIONS: The brains of SHR rats with elevated systemic MABPs are probably protected against excessive hemorrhage during surgery because of greater resistance in the larger cerebral arteries and, thus, reduced cerebral intravascular pressures.
Benveniste, H; Kim, KR; Hedlund, LW; Kim, JW; Friedman, AH
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