Chemical synthesis of novel plasmonic nanoparticles
Under the irradiation of light, the free electrons in a plasmonic nanoparticle are driven by the alternating electric field to collectively oscillate at a resonant frequency in a phenomenon known as surface plasmon resonance. Both calculations and measurements have shown that the frequency and amplitude of the resonance are sensitive to particle shape, which determines how the free electrons are polarized and distributed on the surface. As a result, controlling the shape of a plasmonic nanoparticle represents the most powerful means of tailoring and fine-tuning its optical resonance properties. In a solution-phase synthesis, the shape displayed by a nanoparticle is determined by the crystalline structure of the initial seed produced and the interaction of different seed facets with capping agents. Using polyol synthesis as a typical example, we illustrate how oxidative etching and kinetic control can be employed to manipulate the shapes and optical responses of plasmonic nanoparticles made of either Ag or Pd. We conclude by highlighting a few fundamental studies and applications enabled by plasmonic nanoparticles having well-defined and controllable shapes. Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Lu, X; Rycenga, M; Skrabalak, SE; Wiley, B; Xia, Y
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