Primary and secondary microvascular reconstruction of the upper extremity.
Tissue defects of the upper extremity may result from trauma, tumor resection, infection, and congenital malformation. Restoration of anatomy and functional integrity may require microsurgical free flap transfer for coverage of bones, nerves, blood vessels, or tendons. Microsurgical tissue transfer also may be required prior to secondary reconstruction, such as tendon transfers or nerve or bone grafts. This article addresses indications for upper extremity reconstruction using microsurgical tissue transfer flap selection and strategies including primary and secondary reconstruction.
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