A window on the current status of diabetes mellitus in Singapore--the Diabcare-Singapore 1998 study.
The Diabcare-Singapore project was carried out in 22 clinics (general hospitals, GH and primary healthcare centres, PHC) to provide an overview of diabetes management and metabolic control status. Data from 1697 diabetic patients were collected on paper forms and analysed centrally.Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients constituted 91.4% and type I patients constituted 8.1% of population. The proportion of type I patients was greater in GH (18.1%) vs PHC (3.4%).The mean age (+/- SD) was 58.1 +/- 14.4 years and mean duration of diabetes was 10.1 +/- 7.5 years. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.1 +/- 4.4 kg/m2 and more than half (53%) of patients were overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2). Mean HbA1c and FBG levels were 8.0 (1.9% and 9.1 +/- 3.1 mmol/l. A total of 51% of patients had HbA1c (1% above the Upper Limits of Normal (ULN). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was >7.8 mmol/l in 61% of patients. The majority (70%) had satisfactory levels of fasting lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol). Only 19.7% practised home blood glucose self-monitoring, while 99% reported receiving some diabetes education. Sixteen percent of patients had abnormal levels of protein (>500 mg/24 h) in the urine, 3% had elevated serum creatinine levels and 36% had microalbuminuria. Retinopathy (12%), cataract (16%) and neuropathy (12%) were commonly reported diabetic complications. The data revealed suboptimal glycaemic control in about half of patients studied.
Lee, WR; Lim, HS; Thai, AC; Chew, WL; Emmanuel, S; Goh, LG; Lau, HC; Lee, CH; Soon, PC; Tambyah, JA; Tan, YT; Jorgensen, LN; Chua, A; Yeo, JP; Group, DSLW; Singapore, DSO
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