Prognostic value of cell-cycle markers in ocular adnexal lymphoma: an assessment of 230 cases.
BACKGROUND: To determine the prognostic value of cell-cycle associated markers in ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL). METHODS: Two hundred sixty-one consecutive cases of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions were subdivided into reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (ALH) and OAL. The latter were sub-typed according to the new WHO Lymphoma Classification. All lesions were investigated applying standard immunohistochemical methods with antibodies specific for pRB, p53, p16, p21, BCL-6 and for multiple myeloma oncogene-1-protein (MUM1, also known as IRF4). The main endpoints included the development of a local recurrence, of systemic disease and of lymphoma-related death. The association of prognostic variables with endpoints was assessed by multiple logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. RESULTS: The ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative lesions were categorised as OAL ( n=230; 88%), RLH ( n=29; 11%), and ALH ( n=2; 1%). The major lymphoma subtypes included 136 extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), 31 diffuse large cell B-cell lymphomas, 27 follicular lymphomas, 9 plasmacytomas, 9 lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma/immunocytomas and 8 mantle cell lymphomas. The median follow-up time was 44.5 months. Most OAL patients had Stage IE disease and were treated with radiotherapy. Thirty-seven (25%) Stage IE patients had tumour relapses: these were significantly associated with an increased BCL6 blast percentage. Sixty-two (42%) Stage IE patients developed systemic disease: they had "non-EMZL" with large growth fractions and increased blast percentages for BCL6. Fifty-seven (25%) OAL patients died because of their lymphoma; lymphoma-related death was significantly associated on multivariable analysis with advanced clinical stage, an age >60 years and large tumour growth fractions. CONCLUSION: Subtyping of OAL according to the new WHO Lymphoma Classification, the stage of disease and tumour cell growth fraction aided the prediction of (1) tumour relapse, (2) the development of systemic disease and (3) lymphoma-related death in OAL.
Coupland, SE; Hellmich, M; Auw-Haedrich, C; Lee, WR; Stein, H
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