T-cell and T/natural killer-cell lymphomas involving ocular and ocular adnexal tissues: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of seven cases.
OBJECTIVE: Lymphomas of the eye and its adnexa are frequently of B lineage. This study aims to characterize the clinical and histopathologic features of the rare non-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of these locations. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seven cases of T- and T/NK-cell lymphomas involving the ocular and ocular adnexal tissues. METHODS: A morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis (polymerase chain reaction) of each of the tumors was undertaken. The lesions were classified according to the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification. The clinical and follow-up data were collected. RESULTS: The patients included four women and three men ranging in age from 32 to 88 years (mean, 63 years). The presenting ophthalmic symptoms varied from a small nodule on the upper eyelid and conjunctival swellings to dramatic loss of vision associated with gross protrusion of the globe. Five of the cases presented were secondary manifestations of a systemic lymphoma in ocular tissues; two cases represented primary disease. Three cases were "peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), unspecified" with positivity for CD3, CD8, and betaF1 and negativity for CD56. Two cases were CD3+, CD30+, and CD56- and were classified as "anaplastic large-cell lymphomas of T-cell type" (T-ALCL). The remaining two cases showed an immunophenotype of CD3+, CD56+, and betaF1- and proved to contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by in situ hybridization, consistent with "T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma of nasal type." Clonal T-cell populations were shown in all three of the PTCLs by Southern blot (n = 1) and polymerase chain reaction (n = 2) for the T-cell receptor gamma and beta genes in one case of ALCL but not in the T/NK-cell lymphomas. Five patients died within 2 years; only two patients (one primary PTCL and one cutaneous T-ALCL) were disease free at 4 and 5 years' follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a heterogeneous group of T-cell lymphomas can involve the eye and its adnexal tissue. Most T-cell neoplasms are secondary manifestations of systemic disease and carry a poor prognosis. These findings, in conjunction with published data on ocular B-NHL, also indicate that immunophenotypic differentiation between T- and B-NHL in these locations is of clinical importance.
Coupland, SE; Foss, HD; Assaf, C; Auw-Haedrich, C; Anastassiou, G; Anagnostopoulos, I; Hummel, M; Karesh, JW; Lee, WR; Stein, H
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