In vivo bone lead measurements: a rapid monitoring method for cumulative lead exposure.
Lead concentrations (microgram/g wet weight) in human bone (tibia) were measured noninvasively in vivo employing an X-ray fluorescence technique. Forty-five workers who had been subjected to chronic industrial exposure were found to have a mean bone lead content of 52.9 micrograms/g wet weight (0 to 198 micrograms/g). In addition to bone lead content, blood lead, body burden of lead as assessed by urinary lead excretion after EDTA chelation, zinc protoporphyrin, and unstimulated urinary lead excretion were evaluated. The results suggest that the in vivo measurement of tibia lead content may serve as an acceptable indicator of body lead burden and provide a practical technique for lead screening purposes. The correlation coefficient between X-ray fluorescence findings and lead excretion following Ca-EDTA administration is 0.69; p less than 0.001.
Wielopolski, L; Ellis, KJ; Vaswani, AN; Cohn, SH; Greenberg, A; Puschett, JB; Parkinson, DK; Fetterolf, DE; Landrigan, PJ
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