Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in cardiac allograft patients--a seven-year follow-up.
Renal function was observed retrospectively in a population of 228 adults who underwent a cardiac allograft at the University of Pittsburgh from June 1980 through June 1987, survived a minimum of one year, and received cyclosporine. Renal function was determined by serial measurement of serum creatinine concentration. Serum creatinine rose from 1.2 +/- 0.0 mg/dl at time of hospital discharge to 2.0 +/- 0.0 mg/dl at two and four years and 3.3 +/- 0.1 mg/dl at seven years. The fall in renal function was biphasic, with a rapid decline (reciprocal creatinine slope -0.018 dl/mg-mo) through 24 months and a slower decline thereafter -0.0036 dl/mg/month). This occurred despite a progressive decrease in cyclosporine levels from 668 +/- 23 ng/ml (whole blood RIA) to 380 +/- 12 ng/ml at seven years. Three of 222 patients (1.6%) developed end-stage renal disease within 18 months of initiation of cyclosporine therapy. Only one additional patient of 26 followed through 54 months (3.8%) developed end-stage disease thereafter. The decline in renal function seen with cyclosporine is rapid in the first 18 months, with a slower but continuing decline seen with later follow up. At least in heart transplantation, the risk of end-stage renal disease is significant, but not prohibitive.
Greenberg, A; Thompson, ME; Griffith, BJ; Hardesty, RL; Kormos, RL; el-Shahawy, MA; Janosky, JE; Puschett, JB
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