The noninvasive localization of ventricular pacing sites by radionuclide phase imaging.
This study was designed to investigate the potential role of radionuclide angiographic phase imaging in defining ventricular pacing sites. Twenty patients were paced from multiple right ventricular and left ventricular sites. Ten patients had both normal wall motion and normal electrocardiograms (ECGs), while 10 patients had segmental wall motion abnormalities and/or bundle branch block. Both continuous pacing and premature ventricular stimuli were performed. Multiple (two to three) views of each pacing site were obtained by radionuclide angiography and the ventricular site was determined by subsequent phase imaging. Simultaneous 12-lead ECGs were also obtained. The phase-imaging technique accurately localized all 35 right ventricular and 21 of 25 (84%) left ventricular sites to a specific segment. Statistically, this localization ability was independent of baseline wall motion or conduction system disease. In addition, sites as close as 1.5 cm were identified. The 12-lead ECG distinguished left ventricular from right ventricular pacing sites in all patients. Segmental localization by ECG in the right ventricle was accurate in 24 of 35 (69%) and in the left ventricle in 17 of 25 (68%). Thus, radionuclide angiographic phase imaging provides excellent descriptive information regarding the focus of ventricular pacing ectopy and can define both sites of continuous pacing and intermittent premature ventricular stimulation. These findings provide a basis for further assessment of the role of phase imaging in the evaluation of patients with spontaneous ventricular ectopy.
Bashore, TM; Stine, RA; Shaffer, PB; Bush, CA; Leier, CV; Schaal, SF
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